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Ulbs economics master forex

ulbs economics master forex

received his PhD in Economics at the University of Otago. His interest Monetary Policy Research Unit, primarily on foreign exchange and inter-. Saving Lives and Livelihoods amidst a Once-in-a-Century Crisis. 3. COVID Once in A Century 'Crisis'. 6. The purpose of this study is to analyse the economic-cultural effects that economic impact on the countries as it can contribute to the forex reserve. FOREX EXHIBITION IN MOSCOW They usually get installed on your third party firewall online meeting software your coverage in the spot market. Unos 1, residentes fueron evaluados en total, con 29 casos identificados. Disabling a firewall supported with the. No-one has yet property of their on updating these the future, but.

Paradigms of yesteryear are where consumption of coffee occurred at home. A new way of drinking coffee is propelling innovative technology, a determining coffee at invites to consume. Source: Statista Consumer Market Outlook, The supply of coffee in different roasts, origin and preparations to go, open a distribution segment that generates growth on bars and coffee-houses that we will identify from now on as the cupped coffee segment.

The markets traditionally exploited through the history of consumption of coffee as restaurants, grocery, convenience stores created an environment that transformed habits, creating a culture from which thoughts and changes emanated, and they adopted for the big companies. The alliance between Oxxo and Sonoron is one of its worst moments since its foundation in Chihuahua, in the year The success of this alliance since has been practically a benchmark where a different history begins at the national level in the per capita increase in coffee consumption.

Oxxo stores currently covering approximately 18, stores in the whole country, putting a glass or a thermos of coffee in the hand of the consumer managing to increase consumption and creating a need. In the case of the consumption of coffee in Sinaloa historically, two companies disputed the market for green bean coffee and coffee roasted with sugar.

These firms resorted to sales strategies with promotions and giveaways to stay in the market. Testing of their products within the self-service stores with the support of a sales promoter a cup of coffee was offered to get a customers opinion about the taste and flavour and convincing to take a bottle of soluble roasted coffee.

There is currently a problem with theft of ideas, brands and intellectual property. It is such the case as theft of ideas and names between the businesses in to obtain monetary gain at the cost of the lack of ethics in a globalised business world, where there is no such concept. These firms sought to position themselves in the regional market and are working hard on their strategic planning to enter the national and international market in the future.

These three companies have a great challenge to get involved in the value chain, first at a national and then to internationalise. A new segment different from the traditionally known segments of the industry and the entire value chain. Today the consumer dares to break paradigms and sayings where they leave home with their mug or thermos in their hand, and they fill them at a bar or vending coffee to go, at Oxxo or Caffenio, among other businesses.

These businesses have established their market since they opened their doors, revolutionising sales through points of distribution of prepared coffee, earning this segment in the dynamic coffee industry. Chart 2 shows the three most important segments for the sale of coffee. Table 2: The three segments for coffee and its participation in Mexico Retail, sales of coffee to the public for Participation in the Soluble coffee home consumption in supermarkets and Mexican market.

Sales to businesses, such Ground coffee Sales of coffee to formal Roasted coffee institutions, including hotels, offices, 5. The segment of cupped coffee already exists in the consumer market for coffee in different forms; it just has not been detailed in scope and dimension. Its characteristics must include the millennial generation that has been its engine of development, and in the search for identity.

Compared with other generations, the millennial generation has left its mark on history, causing a change of habits in consumption and culture. Marking this step and leaving its seal. INEGI does not have this segment of coffee in a specific line; it has it added in a generic section where there are furs, coffee shops and ice cream shops in a group.

Coffee should get its place for the contribution to the world economy and especially exports and foreign exchange revenue. The economic and cultural impact globally is considerable, because the annual value for was , million dollars worldwide.

Summarising the content presented so far farmers in coffee cultivation are poverty-stricken around the world due to the low price they get for the yield. There is a traditional trade restricted world and also a globalised world paralleled in which the invisible hand of markets and big capital operate a supply and demand law manipulated so that the gap between poverty and wealth remains abysmal.

Profit predominate, and the lack of awareness about the market value of coffee is leading towards the exploitation of farmers. This movement fights for the justice of the marketing of products made under fair conditions. Fairtrade denounces the outrages, which originate poverty and inequality where political opinions come in, which also seeks an alternative trading system. Fairtrade looks for the rights of the peoples to be protected and that they are part of the economic activity, guaranteeing, among other things, fair treatment, respect for human rights and the environment.

In the fair-trade network in the world, there are more than organisations in Africa, Asia and Latin America which content producers and working people, agreeing on prices and seeking counselling to improve their marketing existing in the world more than stores specialising in fair trade.

However, in the field of coffee, fair trade does not conform this scheme even when the grain is within the organisation, due to the economic interests that it represents for transnational corporations which speculate on production, prediction, commercialisation and the final price paid to the coffee farmer.

Figure 3 shows the value chain of the green coffee bean. It passes to the buyers, carriers, distributors, roasters, exporters, arriving to the industrialist who subjects it to different processes for different presentations and markets, which leads us to this study, that tries to open up a panorama that sensitises the position of the farmer from the field to the final consumer, generating industry and an economy, which affects and benefits people inside and outside of the business.

In some countries like Mexico coffee industry provides sufficient foreign exchange to support the economy and has become an important generator of revenue to the national economy after oil, money sent by workers abroad and tourism. Therefore, it is important in many countries of the world, which generate foreign exchange and economic support in countries and regions that this industry predominates such as in Vietnam, Colombia, Brazil among other grain-producing nations.

This work has the purpose of exposing the importance of coffee consumption in the global economy and pointing out who makes each sip possible, through the different presentations of the type beverages made with coffee, it is clear that in order for global trade of grain happens, many strategic alliances need to happen between governments, industries and producers.

The millennial generation has been the fundamental engine because of its high purchasing power, and it has revitalised the industry, and new concepts have been created by companies dedicated to the retail of prepared coffee Gapper, It is worth mentioning that over time the old alliances last and are valid, as is the case with the coffee stock in New York that almost years after its foundation still handles the threads of power to define the price of grain worldwide, that from there with speculation the coffee farmer loses money generating a gap of inequality in obtaining profit.

Figure 4 shows the value chain outside of the country of origin, explaining that out of 15 dollars spent on coffee, only 92 cents go to the original farmer and most of the rest stays with the big companies and retailers. Coffee is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water, and it generates a percentage of GDP globally generating jobs throughout the value chain and in Mexico is no exception since the market value is 10,, million pesos annually.

The change in habits generated by the consumption of coffee is an effect that is due to several factors, in which the millennial generation participates, these being the ones that currently have the most purchasing power and the multinationals that bet on infrastructure investment through the creation of new concepts adapting them to the search for a sense of belonging of said generation in a globalised way.

The coffee trade makes the world smaller because it makes it possible to have access to all the grains of each of the coffee regions from the geographical point where we find everything thanks to the existing value chain.

And this is currently happening since the consumer is specialising in the origin of the product, the same supply is being made by experts since they have entered the grain research, in the history of the chain that is a frequent customer, every day it is more common to meet consumers who question the quality of what they buy because, as usual, consumers are interested in reading what they consume. The per capita consumption in Mexico is currently 1. This is why a promising future is seen with the growth of coffee consumption at levels never seen before in a globalised way so that the world coffee trade will continue to be a source of foreign revenue for the countries that produce the grain.

In the case of Mexico, the growth in domestic consumption which has increased from. In Mexico, INEGI does not yet consider to the economic dimension that this industry represents and what it contributes to the GDP since they only focus on the field, in the primary activity and the importance of the internal market of the final consumer, in which current through the segment of cupped coffee is where a gradual increase in per capita coffee, is detected.

At this time is vitally important that INEGI will give coffee market the status in all its dimensions, in traditional and emerging markets such as retail stores, and business concepts that offer prepared coffee to take away and classify it in such a way that apart from the roasted, ground and soluble coffee segment, it includes the cupped coffee segment since it is the engine that makes growth of consumption in the population possible.

Gapper, J. Financial Times. La pobreza de los cafeteros es un gran negocio. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 45, Sanders, A. Used Statistical tools, viz. This paper provides a detailed summary of the life insurers comparative financial performance and soundness and a brief and aggregate overview over the ten years under the different dimensions: Capital adequacy, Asset quality, Re-insurance, and Actuarial issues, Management soundness, Earnings and profitability, and liquidity.

JEL: G22, G01 1. In the global insurance market in , India ranked tenth among eighty-eight countries in the life insurance business, with a share of 2. It has tremendous potential for growth in the coming years. To increase the life insurance penetration and density, particularly the rural areas, the life insurance industry was nationalised with the incorporation of the Life Insurance Corporation LIC in , consolidating together one hundred and fifty-six Indian, sixteen non-Indian insurers, and 75 provident societies.

The Indian economic reforms in , followed by Malhotra committee recommendations in , opened up the life insurance sector to the private players in after the IRDA enactment. There are currently twenty-four players in the Indian life insurance industry. H There is no significant difference between asset quality levels of public and private life insurance companies.

H There is no significant difference between re-insurance coverage and actuarial issues of public and private life insurance companies. H There is no significant difference between earnings and profitability of public and private life insurance companies. H There is no significant difference between the liquidity position of public and private life insurance companies. Financial performance was measured by calculating various financial ratios.

Results revealed that after privatisation, there had been a significant increase in the overall business performance of the Indian life insurance industry. Chandan aimed to study the growth and expansion of the life insurance industry in India after the entry of private life insurers as a result of reforms. The study revealed that in terms of the total premium, the private sector showed more growth as compared to public sector and both public and private sector showed negative growth in a number of policies issued during the study period.

Moreover, the life insurance industry expanded itself mainly in areas other than the metro and urban areas. Shilpa Agarwal and A. The analysis of pre- and post-performance revealed that LIC is showing a respectable growth in its business and there is enormous growth potential for life insurance. Technological disruptions are going to influence the way life insurance business is operated. Intelligence and Internet of Things are making inroads in all functions of Insurance Company.

Robotic underwriting and investing in digital is going to save huge money for companies. Companies will deploy technology to achieve efficiency and scalability in operations, thus enhancing the profitability and ROI for the investors. The results of the comparative analysis show that the companies are performing and reacting differently towards the issues and risks arising in the economy, which affects their ratio and this result into the stiff competition between insurance companies.

Jansirani P. Muthusamy attempted to study the financial performance of selected four public sector, non-life insurers during five years from to using CARAMEL model. Sumninder Kaur Bawa and Samiya Chattha attempted to examine the financial performance of Indian life insurers on the basis of various parameters. For measuring it, various financial ratios have been calculated, taking into consideration liquidity, solvency, profitability and leverage of the insurance players.

This paper determined the impact of liquidity, solvency, leverage, size and equity capital on the profitability of life insurers in India. This paper used Multiple linear regression model to measure the impact. The results revealed that profitability of life insurers is positively influenced by liquidity and size, negatively related with capital and does not show any relationship with solvency and insurance leverage. Anoop Kumar Singh and Sumbul Fatima had made an attempt to evaluate the growth and performance of one of the top private life insurer ICICI Prudential Life through certain parameters such as net profit, net premium, and the number of branches.

These are further statistically tested with the help of the one-sample t-test. The results revealed that the performance of the company has been satisfactory with net profits continuously increasing. The CARAMEL Model revealed that the insurer needs to strengthen its capital base in proportion to its total assets, reduce its operating expenses and should maintain their liquid assets base to meet their current liabilities. The t-test results for the same show that there were significant differences in the performance of the company.

The study had framed three hypotheses to achieve the key objectives. Statistical results of the study revealed that there is statistically a significant difference between capital adequacy, earnings and profitability and liquidity position of selected life insurers. The overall results reveal that the capital adequacy level of selected private life insurers is far better than the mean capital adequacy level of public life insurer and in terms of earnings and profitability, the public life insurers have outperformed the private life insurers during the study period.

Valeed A. Ansari and Wubshet Fola made an attempt to examine the financial soundness and performance of life insurance companies in India, based on regulatory and supervisory standards. Kamaleshwar Rao S and K. The study is based on secondary data collected from the annual reports of the respective companies for a period of ten years from and It is also observed that the major source for all three insurers during the study period was premium income and the insurers SBI and ICICI have good underwriting capacity.

In the light of severe competition, widening of the life insurance market, and the different challenges faced by the life insurers currently, there is a need to conduct new research on the financial performance and soundness of life insurers. After two decades of the entry of private insurers still, India largely remains an under-penetrated market. The Indian life insurance industry is currently facing stiff competition among the insurance players.

Incompetent management may cost the company a lot. Insurance companies being underwriters of risk, need to settle the claims in time. Therefore, most people see insurance as an unnecessary expense. For calculations, this research paper had used secondary data published by IRDAI and also financial data related to selected life insurance companies downloaded from the corresponding company websites and various academic journals and literature.

Life insurers being financial intermediaries, tap savings of the public in the form of premiums. To sustain confidence in the public, they have to maintain their financial credibility. Consequently, life insurers need to give importance to their financial soundness and performance.

Therefore, this paper attempted to test the financial soundness and performance of selected life insurers using the CARAMEL parameters. Capital adequacy is an indicator of the protection cover for the insured and indicates the stability and efficiency of the financial system. It also tells whether the insurance company has enough capital to absorb losses arising from claims. The capital adequacy of selected life insurers is analysed using the following two ratios.

Though a higher value proves better in the short-term, it is better to have a lower ratio in the long run. The company had been strengthening its assets base as depicted by the declining ratio, although it had been continuously increasing its equity capital and reserves year to year.

The ratio of capital to total assets ratio of SBI Life ranged from 0. The ratio was stable, with little fluctuations during the period. Initially, the company had more capital than its total assets, which implied that the company was inefficient in creating assets; however, there had been an improvement in recent years. The Bajaj Allianz Life capital to total assets ratio ranged from 0. The ratio had been rising continuously during the entire period of the study.

The reason may be attributed to doubling their reserves balance, thus increasing their total capital. Overall the performance of the private sector insurers with respect to this ratio had improved over the years as the ratio had declined from 0. However, there are no set limits on how much reserve should be made by the insurance companies, yet they should create reserves equal to the losses that might arise from the number of policies issued during the year.

Lower capital to technical reserve ratio is preferable, which means that the reserve amount is sufficient in meeting the obligations. Graph 2- Capital to Technical Reserves Ratio Source: Calculated from IRDA and various issues of annual reports of the selected life insurance companies Result: Capital to Technical Reserves Ratio presented in the above graph shows that the public sector insurer LIC had been a satisfactory and consistent performer as its ratio ranged from 1.

The ratio has indicated that LIC had enough reserves to meet its claims and guarantee its obligations. The ratio for Max Life ranged from Bajaj Allianz Life had been doing well wherein it had maintained its capital to technical reserves ratio quite satisfactorily, and the ratio ranged from 1.

The above analysis shows that, in comparison to the private sector, public sector company LIC had been doing fairly well as its ratio is far better than the average of private insurers and the industry average. In contrast to this, a lower ratio implies a lower margin of safety as there is more risk of losing money in case of bad quality of assets. Over the years, the ratio remained almost constant at 0. Over the years, the private sector companies had built up the total assets, which lead to a decrease in their ratios, though satisfying the minimum capital requirement.

A decreasing trend had been observed, which means that the equities had lessened in proportion to total assets over the years, which otherwise had increased. The performance of LIC had been much lower than the performance of the private life insurers, maybe because it had just maintained its equity capital as mandated by the authority at Rs. This ratio indicates the risk-bearing capacity of the insurance sector.

The difference between gross premium and net premium shows the amount of risk transferred onto the reinsurer. The greater amount shows more risk is passed onto the reinsurer and vice-versa and also indicates the risk-bearing capacity of the company. It implies that LIC had relied very less on the reinsures.

The private sector life insurers had also been quite consistent in risk-bearing and relied very less on the reinsurers, as is evident from their ratios. The life insurance industry ratio ranged from 0. The private sector ratio also, on average, ranged from 0.

It can be understood from the above ratios that life insurers preferred to retain risk with them, instead of passing on to the reinsurers to boost their profits by reducing the transaction cost by not sharing the premium amount with the reinsurers. The ratio is indicative of the development of reserves of the insurance companies over the years. A higher ratio is considered better as it would show the strength of the company.

Evaluation of Financial Performance Source: Calculated from IRDA and various issues of annual reports of the selected life insurance companies Result: It can be observed from the above graph that LIC had a negligible ratio over the study period. The ratio ranged from 0. It indicated that the company had created fewer reserves in proportion to the average net premium earned in the last three years.

Bajaj Allianz Life ratio ranged from 0. It indicated better performance of the company than the other private insurers, which may be due to an increase in its profits. The life insurance industry ratio witnessed an increasing trend from to from being 0. The private sector ratio also witnessed an increasing trend from to from 0.

It is observed that the ratio of private-sector average to be higher than the average of the industry, meaning thereby that the private life insurance players had created more reserves than the public sector. The reasons for lesser reserves of public sector company LIC could be because of stable profits and an increase in investments. It is crucial to study the management soundness as it reflects the financial stability of the company. The following two ratios study the Management Soundness of the selected life insurers.

To uphold its position in the market, LIC had increased its operating expenses to generate a high gross premium to retain its customer base in the insurance market. SBI Life had its ratio ranged from 0. The company had played reasonably well as its operating expenses gradually decreased. The ratio stood at 0. In Max, Life improvement had been observed in the operating expenses to the gross premium ratio as the ratio declined from 0.

There were various fluctuations in the ratio during the study period as there were ups and downs in the absolute figure of operating expenses and gross premium, which indicated that the company did not have the sound management efficiency compared to other insurers. The life insurance industry witnessed a decreasing trend in operating expenses to the gross premium ratio for the entire study period with minor deviations.

The private life insurance industry, too, saw a declining trend during the whole study period, which shows that the private life insurers had worked efficiently in reducing their operating expenses to generate gross premium. A Higher ratio indicates that the management efficiency of the company is better, i.

It witnessed an increasing trend during the study period, which implied that the total number of LIC agents had worked hard to earn a gross premium in a considerable amount. This company also witnessed an increasing trend during the study period, with a slight downfall from Its performance is quite mixed as the ratio gradually declined from The Max Life ratio ranged from 7. The Bajaj Allianz Life ratio ranged from 3.

It can be understood from the above discussion that the management of LIC had been making the right decisions in appointing skilled agents who are boosting the business of the company. Earnings and Profitability Analysis: Earnings and profitability of any company reflect its strength in the market. Profits are the main sources of long- term capital. There are numerous ratios to evaluate the profitability, of which the following three ratios are calculated to measure the performance of the selected life insurance companies.

The lower the ratio, the better the profitability of the company. Graph 8 -Expense Ratio Source: Calculated from IRDA and various issues of annual reports of the selected life insurance companies Result: From the above graph, it can be observed that LIC had witnessed a mixed trend with a shift between increase and decrease, indicating that the company had to spend more, most of the time, during the period of study in obtaining the net premium thereby reducing their profitability margin.

Its ratio showed a mixed trend ranging from 0. Although the company had small fluctuations, it reduced their operating expenses to a level where the net premium amount had increased well, indicating good performance and a better profitable position. However, the ratios decreased in recent years, indicating it is doing well.

But it was above the industry average, which stated that the public sector performed better than the private sector. LIC had its equity capital constant at Rs. After the infusion of capital in of Rs. The trend of performance of SBI Life implied that in the coming years, the company might experience more profitability on the amount of equity capital invested. HDFC had a negative return on equity ratio in the years and Max Life in the year 10, indicating that they were running in loss.

From onwards, these companies started to have positive returns on what they had invested before. Bajaj Allianz Life had performed well among private life insurance companies. The performance of the public sector company LIC is better than all the private life insurers. The ratio is a profitability ratio showing the percentage of profit that the company makes out of its total assets.

It is for a rupee asset how much profit is being made thereon. A higher ratio is preferable, which indicates that the company is using its assets to give higher profits than the money invested in assets. It helps the investors know the wellness of the company in a way that how profoundly the management of the company is running the business. In it had a negative return, which turned positive from and stood at 0.

The decrease in LICs profits may be attributed to the increase in its total expenses and carrying excess current assets. Liquidity Analysis: Liquidity is a position where the payee stands ready to pay out as soon as possible basically within one year. In the insurance business, the timing of insurance claims is uncertain. One cannot predict as to when the insured could claim for their insurance policy.

Therefore, on this ground, the insurer should be ready enough to pay out its uncertain claims. The insurer has to settle the claims at the maturity of the policy undertaken, which is known, but at times of uncertain happenings, one has to call for its liquid assets to pay for it. A firm should make sure that it does not suffer from a lack of liquidity and does not have excess liquidity. If the company cannot meet its obligations because of insufficient liquidity, it might result in poor creditworthiness.

A high degree of liquidity is also threatening as the assets might lie idle, and unnecessary funds get tied up in currents assets. Therefore the insurers must strike a balance between high liquidity and lack of liquidity. The Liquidity position of the selected life insurers is studied using the following three ratios. Current liabilities are the same as taken for the above ratio calculation. As a conventional rule, a ratio of is considered desirable and satisfactory for a firm.

Such current assets might be of less value, which is not sufficient to pay its current liabilities. Thus a firm should be cautious about doing so. The ratio had never gone down below the standard level, and for a few years, it had gone up till 10 in and later came down gradually in the last few years. It did not even touch the standard level during the entire period, implying weak liquidity and inefficient management.

Max Life ratio ranged from 0. The life insurance industries, average current assets to current liabilities ratio ranged from 0. It signaled an insufficient liquidity position. The private sector ratio ranged from 0. Still, at the same time, it needs to take care of its excess current assets.

Here liquid assets are the cash and bank balances taken from the balance sheet of the respective insurers. There are no benchmarks defined to maintain such a ratio, yet it should be enough to pay for any contingency. It went up from 0. For most of the years under the study period, the liquid assets acquired a consistent position in the total assets, but in the later years, the proportion of liquid assets in the total assets had decreased, indicating towards adjustment of excess liquidity to maintain required assets to meet its contingency.

The private sector life insurers witnessed a declining trend, which indicated that the companies had paid less importance to proportion an amount for the liquid assets to meet out its sudden and unforeseen obligations. In the present research paper, liquid liabilities are taken as current liabilities. There are no benchmarks defined for maintaining such a ratio, and therefore it should not be too much that it pressurises the insurance company to create high current assets.

Overall the liquid liabilities to total liabilities ratio of selected life insurers for the entire study period had decreased, which is a sign of improvement. The industry average concerning liquid liabilities to total liabilities ratio for the period ranged from 0. There had been more or less a declining trend in the ratios. It indicated that the proportion of liquid liabilities out of the total liabilities had decreased over the years, implicating a positive sign, implying that the life insurance companies do not have to bear the pressure of creating current assets to meet the current liabilities.

The private sector average ranged from 0. It predicts that the mean capital adequacy level of public life insurer is better than the mean capital adequacy level of private life insurers. But it can be observed from the values of the standard deviation that there are more fluctuations in the private sector. The table-1 b shows the P-values of capital to total assets and capital to Technical reserves as equal to 0.

Hence we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is statistically a significant difference between the mean capital adequacy for private life insurers and the mean capital adequacy for the public life insurer. From the table- 2 b , P-value is equal to 0. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected, and we conclude that there is statistically a significant difference between the mean asset quality in private life insurers and the public life insurer.

Error Mean of the Sig. Value Mann-Whitney U 0. It predicts that concerning the risk retention, both public and private players have done well. Concerning the survival ratio, private life insurers are better than the public life insurer. But it can be inferred from the standard deviation that the public life insurer is consistent. In contrast, the private life insurer had fluctuations concerning the retention and survival ratios.

From table- 3 b , the P-value of net premium to gross premium is equal to 0. From table- 3 c , the P-value of technical reserves to the average premium received in the last three years is equal to 0. Deviation Std. Error Mean Operating Expenses Public 10 0. It predicts that the management soundness of public life insurers is far better than private life insurers. Table- 4 b shows that the P-value of operating expenses to gross premium ratio and gross premium to the number of employees ratio is equal to 0.

Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected, and its concluded that there is a significant difference between management soundness indicators of public and private life insurers. Hence we conclude that there is a significant difference between Earnings and profitability indicators of public and private life insurers.

It predicts that the liquidity position of public life insurer is better than private life insurers. The table-6 b shows the P-value of current assets to liquid liabilities, liquid assets to total assets, and liquid liabilities to total liabilities ratio equal to 0.

Hence we conclude that there is a significant difference between liquidity position in private and public life insurers. The CARAMEL model comparative analysis revealed that the public life insurer performed better than private life insurers in capital adequacy, management soundness, ROE, and liquidity dimensions. Here, the comparative analysis showed that both sectors perform and react differently towards the issues and risks arising in the economy, which resulted in stiff competition between them.

The researcher had made some observations which need to be taken care of by life insurers. The public sector insurer LIC needs to focus on its relatively inadequate capital position against private players, high underwriting expenses to Gross Written Premium GWP , low return on assets, and excess liquidity.

The private insurers need to concentrate more on their illiquidity to be strong enough to meet their liabilities in time. Hymavathi Kumari. P, and A. Kamaleshwar Rao. S and K. Employment generation through this sector is million for In the recent COVID pandemic from March , the sector has suffered considerably, and is struggling to regain its original strength. Its contribution to inclusive growth, entrepreneurship development and innovation are of a high order.

The present paper presents the role of the MSME sector in two parts: Part I covers recent developments and efforts being made to revitalise the sector. Part I includes Exhibits 1 to 4. It presents the announcement made regarding the revised criteria applicable from 1st July Appendix 1 presents the registration process for MSMEs. Other exhibits refer to specific measures announced by the Ministry of Finance at the Centre and Reserve Bank of India.

It is a multi-pronged effort, with a focus on improving the liquidity position of MSMEs and other enterprises affected by the pandemic. Overcoming the recent crisis is the major effort in the next couple of years or so. Improving the competitiveness of the sector as part of globalisation efforts is a broader objective to be pursued over a longer period.

E-Mail: dr. With the enlargement of the coverage of the sector, the definition of MSMEs has been revised. This definition is based on the twin criteria of investment in plant and machinery or equipment, and the annual turnover of the enterprise. The earlier definition was based on investment in plant and machinery or equipment of the enterprise. Both reports are given in Exhibit I. The revised definition is given here.

MSME category Criteria for categorising enterprises covering manufactur- ing, services, and trade effective from 1st July 1 crore equals 10 million Microenterprise Investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not ex- ceed Rs. Small enterprise Investment in plant and machinery or equipment falls above Rs. Medium enterprise Investment in plant and machinery or equipment falls above Rs. In terms of job creation, the present level is 11 crore. It is planned to increase this by five crore new jobs, with the enlargement of the scope of the sector, as well as new directions planned to be pursued in the next few years.

The revised definition of MSMEs will encourage exports by the companies as exports turnover has been excluded from the aggregate turnover for eligibility purposes, resulting in more companies qualifying for MSME status. Moreover, the increased limit on investment in Plant and Machinery, and equipment for medium companies, from Rs.

Coverage of enterprises in this Survey is as per the definitions in vogue till recently. The enterprises covered are manufacturing, trade, other services, and non-captive electricity generation and transmission in rural and urban areas. The higher number of micro- enterprises exhibit the potential for growth and graduation of these enterprises with a facilitative environment. The MSME space has been gradually growing, as the number has increased from It only shows that these enterprises are not able to scale up.

There are two distinct features noticed in the analysis. The share of manufacturing, trade and services accounts for 31, 36 and 33 per cent. The broad activity-based job creation is equally shared by manufacturing, trade and services, as also rural-urban split. A logical corollary of the predominant share of micro-enterprises is that jobs created per enterprise remain low. Further to focus on micro-enterprises, the RBI has specified a sub-limit of 7.

Earlier, to be in reckoning as a priority sector, there were caps based on the category of MSMEs. For example, loans up to Rs. Though this relaxation is not meant for micro- enterprises alone, it will benefit the sector as a whole. The demonetisation announced in November led to hiccups for MSMEs, especially those relying on cash as the primary medium of operation, though the overall business environment was also impacted.

Earlier, the limit was 90 days and days for banks and NBFCs, respectively. Less than Rs. Small Enterprise More than Rs. This definition mentioned in the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, has been in vogue from From , there have been discussions regarding the criterion to be followed for revising the MSME definition by using annual turnover or employment of the enterprises as the criterion.

The revised definition given in this exhibit has become operational from 1st July Revised Definition for MSMEs in operation from 1st July — categorisation into manufacturing and services will not be there; only composite criterion to be followed for the entire MSME Sector — for the three categories of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises - criteria: investment in plant and machinery or equipment, and an annual turnover of the enterprise, applicable for manufacturing, service, and trade or any other relevant category.

This definition has been considered progressive and suitable because of the implementation of Goods and Services Tax GST from July Hence, the turnover based definition would be transparent, progressive, and easier to implement. It would also help in removing the bias towards manufacturing enterprises followed in the existing definition, and improve the ease of doing business.

MSME Category Criteria for categorising enterprises covering manufactur- ing, services, and trade effective from 1st July one crore equals 10 million Microenterprise Investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed Rs. IN; and WWW. IN, respectively. For application, use as small letters. For subsequent years, the depreciated value is taken into account, and not the original purchase price. Moreover, the increased limit on investment in plant and machinery, and equipment for medium companies, from Rs.

The form for registration shall be provided in the Udyam Registration Portal. Aadhaar number shall be required for Udyam registration. In case any enterprise is duly registered as an Udyam with PAN, any deficiency of information for previous years when it did not have PAN shall be filed on a self-certification basis. No enterprise shall file more than one Udyam registration. All enterprises registered till 30th June , shall be reclassified in accordance with this notification.

The existing enterprises registered prior to 30th June , shall continue to be valid only for a period up to the 31st day of March An enterprise having Udyam Registration Number shall update its information online in the Udyam Registration Portal, including details of the ITR and GST Return for the previous financial year, and such other information as may be required, on self-declaration basis. Based on the information furnished or gathered from government sources, including ITR or GST return, the classification of the enterprise will be updated.

In case of an upward change in terms of investment in plant and machinery or equipment or turnover or both, and consequent re-classification, the enterprise will maintain its prevailing status till the expiry of one year from the close of the financial year of registration.

Any person who is not able to file Udyam Registration for any reason including for lack of Aadhaar number may approach any of the above Single Window Systems for Udyam registration purposes with his Aadhaar enrolment identity slip or copy of Aadhaar enrolment request or bank photo passbook or voter identity card or passport or driving licence, and Single Window Systems will facilitate the process including getting Aadhaar number, and thereafter in the further process of Udyam Registration.

The Finance Ministry had requested the RBI to make these loans risk free, following an interaction with banks. As a part of the package, Rs. Detailed guidelines on the Credit Guarantee Loan issue will be issued.

The government has said that it has made available a corpus of the Rs. Zero risks would mean that banks will not have to set aside additional capital for these loans. The move is aimed at encouraging lenders to extend credit, as banks have turned risk-averse, and have been reluctant to lend. They may approach the RBI to allow them not to attach any risk weight.

The government would probably issue a letter of comfort, and based on that, this Corporation will issue guarantees. The tenure of the loan under the Scheme will be for four years, with a moratorium period of one year on the principal amount. The interest rate under the Scheme is 9. The Scheme will be implemented over a 5-year period and will benefit about two lakh self-help groups, farmer producer organisations and other small units through a credit-linked subsidy, providing money for working capital and tools, a marketing grant, skills training and technical upgrade.

It is thus mainly a Financial Package. Specific steps taken for improving the liquidity position of MSMEs and other enterprises are detailed here. This amounted to Rs. A loan of Rs. A Fund of Rs. The entities procuring the material shall include all government departments, local bodies, statutory bodies, development authorities, companies, corporations, special purpose vehicles, societies, trusts, and any other public sector undertakings.

They have to be paid during August, September, and October The Hindu, 17th May Will micro, small and medium enterprises be able to kickstart their businesses? How do the proposals make it easier for banks to lend to MSMEs and other categories of businesses?

The first tranche, aimed at micro, small and medium enterprises MSMEs , non-banking financial companies NBFCs , and at some individuals was announced by her on 13th May What are the proposals aimed at offering relief to MSMEs? There will be a principal repayment moratorium for one year, the interest rate will be capped, and there will be no guarantee fee.

These loans will have a four-year tenure, and the Scheme will be open till 31st October A total of Rs. How will this benefit MSMEs? This loan will help them buy raw materials, pay initial bills, and daily wages to employees. In short, this will be like working capital for cranking up their businesses again. Banks flush with funds have been unwilling to lend this category of borrowers as they fear that the money will not be repaid. These small businesses have also pledged all their assets already for other loans, and do not have any more assets to pledge.

It is to break this logjam that the government has said that it will backstop banks up to Rs. Banks are now expected to be more comfortable in assisting this category of borrowers because the risk is zero since the loans are guaranteed by Government of India. This is the single biggest proposal in the last three tranches of announcements under Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, and small businesses are expected to benefit from this in a big way.

About 45 lakh MSMEs are expected to gain from this proposal. Are these the only proposals for MSMEs? A partial credit guarantee scheme has been extended to enable promoters of these units to increase their equity. This will be leveraged to raise Rs.

The aim is to expand the size and capacity of the MSMEs with equity and help them get listed on the stock exchange. What are the proposals for non-banking financial companies NBFCs? The government has, therefore, announced a special liquidity scheme of Rs. The government will fully guarantee such paper. This is expected to break the low confidence cycle in the market for lending to the above category of borrowers. Do electricity distribution companies also feature in the first tranche announced?

Yes, distribution companies are in a huge liquidity crisis, and unable to pay their dues to electricity generation companies. Their cash flow and revenues got hit due to low demand from industrial consumers for power during the lockdown. The various State distribution companies together owe about Rs. The loans given to discharge their dues to generation companies will be against a guarantee from the respective State related to the distribution companies.

This emergency liquidity infusion will avert a crisis where generation and transmission companies stop supplies to distribution companies that are in default. What are the measures for the common man? This has now been extended for another three months up to August This is expected to benefit 4. Thus, in payments to contractors, professional fees, rent, interest, commission, brokerage, etc.

The TCS paid while buying a car of over Rs. The lower TDS is not applicable on a monthly salary that employees receive. It will be payable while filing return or while paying advance tax. The idea is only to offer immediate cash relief to people. The MSMEs are widening their domain across sectors of the economy, producing a diverse range of products and services to meet demands of domestic as well as global markets.

In the System of National Accounts, it is an estimate of the value of the services provided by financial intermediaries, such as banks, for which no explicit charges are made; instead, these services are paid for as part of the margin between rates applied to savers and borrowers.

The supposition is that savers would receive a lower interest rate and borrowers pay a higher interest rate if all financial services had explicit charges. Directions for the future can include the formation of consortia, cluster associations, and strategic alliances with their counterparts in other countries resulting in technological linkages, and financial tie-up.

Special attention needs to be paid to promote research and development, quality assurance, innovation and incubation, and application of information technology tools. The impact of recent initiatives of Government of India and State Governments need to be carefully monitored to plan for subsequent steps to be taken to overcome the setback experienced in the growth of the sector because of COVID pandemic.

A special focus has to be built on micro-level planning of exports based on a smaller selective number of niche products and services , niche locations including export clusters, and niche markets than has been attempted so far. While the government will have to play a crucial supportive role in carrying out the above exercise, the prime movers in the Act will have to be exporting units themselves.

Through periodic applied research and evaluation studies, it is important to make an assessment of the impact of certain policies on various product groups and in different regions of the country, and evolve new strategies relevant for coping up with the challenges of inclusive growth.

SMEs in the competitive environment need to plan for globalisation as part of their strategy to enhance competitiveness, and not as a reaction to venture into new markets. Nagayya: dr. One major challenge faced by it is housing, especially for those at the bottom of the pyramid. With the lack of adequate and affordable housing options, most of the urban poor are forced to live in slum settlements. As the urban poor living in slums are mostly outcaste from the housing market due to un- affordability, much of the housing supply for them comes from various public housing schemes.

Yet, the housing scenario of such urban population is not well analysed. This paper analyses the housing shortage for urban poor in the current scenario and then generates other possible scenarios business as usual and three more scenarios under which the housing shortfall for urban poor can be analysed. These scenarios are further analysed under both static and dynamic conditions for getting a better perspective of housing for urban poor in Pune.

The study findings suggest that the there tends to be residual of housing shortage even after the implementation of various public housing schemes for the urban poor and, therefore, underlines the need for more such public interventions. With increasing urbanisation, housing the population in urban areas has been becoming of much greater concern than in the past. Further, as much of the urban population is becoming more concentrated in large cities, housing in large Indian cities is becoming of particular concern.

The decadal population growth of Pune urban agglomeration over a period of time presented in Figure 1 clearly shows that much of the population growth has happened after Pune has grown rapidly in the past three decades , primarily due to the presence of manufacturing industry. The new industrial policy on setting up SEZs further fostered industrial development in Pune. In the next wave of change, the city has emerged as an Information Technology IT hub with a majority of the IT firms preferring to have a base in it for its proximity to Mumbai and the availability of low cost high skilled workforce.

In the last three decades, the population of Pune city within the limits of PMC grew from 8. While the natural population growth, i. The rapid population growth has led to an increase in the demand for housing from all income groups of the population.

The housing demand of higher and middle-income population groups is normally met by its supply by private housing developers. The low income and working-class population have not been able to find adequate options due to the lack of supply of housing options suited to them.

Although the problem of slums is examined by many studies from different points of view mostly, as a social, economic and environmental problem , the housing shortfall due to gap between the supply needs of and the housing units supply for the urban poor is not well studied.

This housing shortfall of the urban poor is analysed under various scenarios of population growth and housing supply. These conventional houses of Pune have typical architectural and the traditional character of a typical old city. They are dominantly residential use but are now coming under mixed-use.

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