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A Plus account is required to perform this action. Get valuable resources straight to your inbox - sent out once per month. An operational amplifier op amp is an analog circuit block that takes a differential voltage input and produces a single-ended voltage output. Op amps usually have three terminals: two high-impedance inputs and a low-impedance output port.

Operational amplifiers work to amplify the voltage differential between the inputs, which is useful for a variety of analog functions including signal chain, power, and control applications. Because most op amps are used for voltage amplification, this article will focus on voltage amplifiers. There are many different important characteristics and parameters related to op amps see Figure 1. These characteristics are described in greater detail below. This means the feedback path, or loop, is open.

Voltage comparators compare the input terminal voltages. Even with small voltage differentials, voltage comparators can drive the output to either the positive or negative rails. High open-loop gains are beneficial in closed-loop configurations, as they enable stable circuit behaviors across temperature, process, and signal variations.

Input impedance is measured between the negative and positive input terminals, and its ideal value is infinity, which minimizes loading of the source. In reality, there is a small current leakage. Arranging the circuitry around an operational amplifier may significantly alter the effective input impedance for the source, so external components and feedback loops must be carefully configured. It is important to note that input impedance is not solely determined by the input DC resistance.

Input capacitance can also influence circuit behavior, so that must be taken into consideration as well. However, the output impedance typically has a small value, which determines the amount of current it can drive, and how well it can operate as a voltage buffer. An ideal op amp would have an infinite bandwidth BW , and would be able to maintain a high gain regardless of signal frequency.

Op amps with a higher BW have improved performance because they maintain higher gains at higher frequencies; however, this higher gain results in larger power consumption or increased cost. GBP is a constant value across the curve, and can be calculated with Equation 1 :. These are the major parameters to consider when selecting an operational amplifier in your design, but there are many other considerations that may influence your design, depending on the application and performance needs.

Other common parameters include input offset voltage, noise, quiescent current, and supply voltages. In an operational amplifier, negative feedback is implemented by feeding a portion of the output signal through an external feedback resistor and back to the inverting input see Figure 3.

Negative feedback is used to stabilize the gain. This is because the internal op amp components may vary substantially due to process shifts, temperature changes, voltage changes, and other factors. The closed-loop gain can be calculated with Equation 2 :. There are many advantages to using an operational amplifier. Op amps have a broad range of usages, and as such are a key building block in many analog applications — including filter designs, voltage buffers, comparator circuits, and many others.

In addition, most companies provide simulation support, such as PSPICE models, for designers to validate their operational amplifier designs before building real designs. The limitations to using operational amplifiers include the fact they are analog circuits, and require a designer that understands analog fundamentals such as loading, frequency response, and stability.

It is not uncommon to design a seemingly simple op amp circuit, only to turn it on and find that it is oscillating. Due to some of the key parameters discussed earlier, the designer must understand how those parameters play into their design, which typically means the designer must have a moderate to high level of analog design experience. There are several different op amp circuits, each differing in function. The most common topologies are described below. The most basic operational amplifier circuit is a voltage follower see Figure 4.

This circuit does not generally require external components, and provides high input impedance and low output impedance, which makes it a useful buffer. Because the voltage input and output are equal, changes to the input produce equivalent changes to the output voltage. The most common op amp used in electronic devices are voltage amplifiers, which increase the output voltage magnitude. Inverting and non-inverting configurations are the two most common amplifier configurations.

Both of these topologies are closed-loop meaning that there is feedback from the output back to the input terminals , and thus voltage gain is set by a ratio of the two resistors. In inverting operational amplifiers, the op amp forces the negative terminal to equal the positive terminal, which is commonly ground. In this configuration, the same current flows through R2 to the output.

The current flowing from the negative terminal through R2 creates an inverted voltage polarity with respect to V IN. This is why these op amps are labeled with an inverting configuration. V OUT can be calculated with Equation 3 :. The operational amplifier forces the inverting - terminal voltage to equal the input voltage, which creates a current flow through the feedback resistors.

What is an operational amplifier? Inverting op-amp. Virtual ground - examples. Current timeTotal duration Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Video transcript - [Voiceover] Now I come to another configuration for an op-amp. And it's partially drawn here. And I'm gonna talk about this as I draw the rest of this circuit in. So this is gonna be made from a resistor configuration that looks like this.

We'll have a resistor on the top. And this will be v-out, as we did before. And now we have a connection like this and the connection here to ground. This terminal is the minus terminal; and this terminal is the positive terminal. This is upside down from what we've done so far. But now pay particular attention here, this one has the minus on top. So now we have R1 and R2. And this is v-in. In particular, what we wanna do is find an expression for v-out as a function of v-in.

All right. And in this video, I'm gonna do it the hard way. And what the hard way means is we're gonna do all the algebra to do this. And then in the next video I'm gonna show you the easy way. The easy way is really fun to learn, and it really helps to see it the hard way one time just so you appreciate the easy way. The other thing we get to do in this video is we'll do the algebra and we'll see how this gain, we take advantage of this gain to make some assumptions.

OK, so let's go after this. Let's develop an expression for v-out in terms of v-in. First, let's write some things we know about v-out, OK? We know that v-out equals A times Now, it's usually v-plus minus v-minus. This is v-plus. This is v-minus. Usually the expression here is v-plus minus v-minus.

And since v-plus is zero, we're just gonna put in minus v-minus. This is equivalent to saying that v-minus equals minus v-out over A. So what else can we write for this circuit? OK, let's look at these resistors. Let's call this plus and minus vR1; and we'll call this one plus minus vR2. So there's a current flowing here, and that we'll call I. I equals vR1 over R1. Another way I can write that. What's this voltage here? So I can write this in terms of v-minus, and that equals v-in minus v-minus over R1.

That's the current going through this guy here. Now I'm gonna use something special. I'm gonna use something special that I know about this amplifier. What I know about an op-amp is that this current here is equal to zero. There's no current that flows into an ideal op-amp. So I could take advantage of that. What that means is that I flows in R2. So let me write and expression for I based on what I find over here, based on R2.

I can write I equals, let's do it, it's vR2 over R2. And I can write vR2 as: v-minus minus v-out over R2. All right, so I took advantage of the zero current flowing in here to write an expression for current going all the way through. So now we're gonna set these two equal to each other.

Now we're gonna make these two equal to each other. Let me go over here and do that. V-in minus v-minus over R1. That equals this term here, which is v-minus minus v-not, v-out rather, over R2. How many variables do we have here?

We have v-out, we have v-in, and we have v-minus. And what I want is just v-out and v-in, so I'm gonna try to eliminate v-minus; and the way I'm gonna do that is this expression over here.

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